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Constant Voltage Charger Selection for LONGWAY Vrla Batteries
Click:1401 Date:2008-12-27 00:00:00 Information Source:

INTRODUCTION
For optimum system cost and performance the battery and charger should be specified as a system. Not only does the charger capability determine the recharge time required but it also has a significant impact on the service life of the battery.

Typically, other than cost, the time required to recharge a battery is the major concern of the battery system user. The recharge time required will be a direct function of the output voltage and current capability of the charger, depth of discharge of the battery and the battery temperature. Utilizing a higher charging voltage or greater charging current capability can be correctly assumed to reduce the recharge time required to attain the desired state of charge. However, higher recharging voltage and current availability may also have a negative impact on battery service life. Other important considerations in the charger selection relate to the battery's tolerance for AC ripple voltage present on the charger DC output and the limitations of any critical load connected in parallel.

Therefore, the selection of the charger must consider the characteristics and limitations of the battery and any parallel connected load as well as the desired recharge time and charger cost.
 
Charging Current Acceptance
 
A profile of battery current acceptance and charger output voltage during a typical recharge is illustrated in Figure 1. This profile will vary depending on the depth of the preceding discharge and the charger output characteristics. In general however, that period known as the "bulk phase" takes the battery to approximately an 85% to 90% state of charge (sac} while the so called "absorption phase", with declining current acceptance, takes the battery to a 95% sac. The last 5% of capacity is restored during what is called the "float phase". Due to the very low current acceptance during this "float phase" an extensive period of time is required to attain the necessary ampere hours of recharge to reach a 100% sac. 

 

Recharge Time
The VRLA battery has internal resistance and other characteristics such that it is not 100% efficient during discharge or recharge. As a result, to attain a 100% state of charge (sac) it requires that the battery be recharged with about 110 Ampere hours for every 100 Ampere hours removed during the discharge. Due to the relatively low charging current acceptance of the battery once it has attained approximately a 90% state of charge, the time to attain a 95% or 100% state of charge is greatly extended. Note in Figure 2 that it requires 4 times as long to reach 100% sac as it does to reach 90% sac. 


Attainment of 100% sac requires an inordinate amount of time, as shown in Figure 2. It is usually most practical size the charger to provide for 90% to 95% sac and then oversize the battery by 5% to 10 % to assure it can deliver the required autonomy following a reasonable recharge period.
 
CHARGER RECOMMENDA TIONS AND OUTPUT LIMITATIONS
 
Selection of the appropriate charging system for the battery will typically be a function of the cost and bulk of the charger and battery performance in terms of recharge time and service life. The charger selected for a cyclic application is typically lower capacity, less sophisticated and less costly than the charger / rectifier utilized in a float service application. In the case of float service applications such as for UPS and telecommunications systems, the requirements of the critical load will also be a major factor in the charger / rectifier selection because the critical load may have more stringent voltage regulation and purity requirements than the battery itself. 
 
Recommended Charging Voltage and Current Charge Voltage (25℃)

 
Battery Charging Current LimitationsBattery Charging Current Limitations


Battery Charging Current Limitations


The battery has an internal resistance (Ri) and as charging current (I) passes through the battery, heat will be generated as a function of the square of the current multiplied by the internal resistance of the battery . There is additional heat generated as a result of the exothermic oxygen recombination cycle, which occurs at the negative plate of the VRLA battery. With high current availability, deep depth of discharge (DOD) and higher charging voltages the duration of the high charging current may be such as to cause the battery to become excessively warm. To maintain battery heating below 


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